Koy Sanjaq (KS): What of one’s Jews of Koy Sanjaq, resident because the on 1951 within the Israel
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Koy Sanjaq (KS): What of one’s Jews of Koy Sanjaq, resident because the on 1951 within the Israel

Koy Sanjaq (KS): What of one’s Jews of Koy Sanjaq, resident because the on 1951 within the Israel
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Koy Sanjaq (KS): What of one’s Jews of Koy Sanjaq, resident because the on 1951 within the Israel

Koy Sanjaq (KS): What of one’s Jews of Koy Sanjaq, resident because the on 1951 within the Israel

Pointers is inspired by Robert Hoberman (private telecommunications). This appears to be generally associate of one’s Jewish languages out of many other metropolitan areas of area also, and additionally Aqra and you will Rawanduz.

not, inside dialect there can be a very unusual changes out of h to h throughout the 3rd individual only one possessive suffixes: resIh ‘his head’

Azerbaijan (Azer): The language of your Jews out-of Iranian Azerbaijan, as well as teams inside Urmi, Salmas, Basqale, Mahabad, and Yuksekova. Data is out of Garbell (1965).

Halabja (Hala): What of the Jews from Halabja into the Iran-Iraq edging. This is very around the Jewish dialects of one’s other locations of your own part, along with Saqqiz, Suleimaniya, Sanandaj, Baneh, and Panjwin. Information arises from my personal cards.

We shall evaluate these types of languages pertaining to twenty-five phonological, morphological, morpho-lexical, and you may lexical criteria. Following Hetzron (1976, 98), i have chosen merely designs because the requirements to own class. I’ve chose an effective disproportionate number of morphological criteria, therefore we will let them have unique weight, again pursuing the Hetzron, however, other mutual designs could well be thought to be better.

Mention as well as the more challenging conservation and also insertion away from for the Koy Sanjaq advertised by the Hoberman (1985)

While we contrast the new dialects off NENA we will you will need to influence the latest the total amount that the brand new dialects express a definite pattern which is different from Turoyo and you may Mandaic. At the same time, we shall find bundles regarding isoglosses contained in this NENA.

(1) Worry can be penultimate in most the new NA languages, including Turoyo and you can Mandaic however on about three easternmost Jewish dialects, Jewish Azerbaijani, Koy Sanjaq, and you can Halabja, which usually be concerned the past syllable. These dialects appear, like this, such as many others (Garbell 1965), to exhibit an unusually strong dictate out-of Kurdish.

(2) Every NENA dialects provides blended h and you may x. Inside the Hertevin the result is h, and almost everywhere else it’s x: Hertevin haye ‘life’ (Jastrow 1988, 189) and dmehli ‘I slept’ (Jastrow 1988, 18), Tkhuma xa:[Theta]a great ‘new’, Jilu ptIxli ‘I opened’ (Fox 1992, 45), and +damxotu ‘you sleep’ (Fox 1992, 55).(4)

Both Turoyo and you will Mandaic preserve separate h and you may x. Particular NENA languages has actually reintroduced h because the a borrowing out of Kurdish otherwise Arabic or out of Classical Syriac otherwise Hebrew.(5) Yet not, this new inherited vocabulary consistently suggests x. Instance, inside Tisqopa you can find lent Arabic terms and conditions, such sahabi ‘friend’, that have h, however, passed down terms and conditions such as laxma ‘bread’ constantly show x. (6)

(3) All of the NENA languages but Hertevin and you will Zakho have forfeit most times regarding passed down. For example, into the Aradhin we find arba ‘four’, upra ‘earth’ equal to Syriac arb good and you may afra. For the Hertevin along with Zakho, inherited are on a regular basis ?: Hertevin thus?good ‘seven’ (Jastrow 1988, 99), Zakho sme?los angeles ‘she heard’ (Meehan and you will Alon 1979, 189). In a lot of other languages most are kept just like the ?, and you can, throughout the other individuals, is gone completely. Particular dialects features reintroduced lent off Arabic otherwise Kurdish. Including, Halabja enjoys ayza ‘good’.

(4) In the earlier dialects off Aramaic, as with Tiberian Hebrew, t turned [Theta] immediately following good vowel. This alternation could have been lexicalized in the NENA, that have both t otherwise [Theta] spreading owing to entire paradigms, if preceded because of the a beneficial vowel or not. Such, when you look at the Aradhin the new verb ‘come’ is now offering [Theta] throughout: a[Theta]ya ‘it (fem.) comes’, in addition to [Theta]e:la ‘she came’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70, 74). After that, in a few languages the brand new phoneme [Theta] have experienced more transform. In certain languages [Theta] possess merged back into t, plus in other people it has become s otherwise l.(7) In one single dialect, Jilu, it has become h after which become erased but from the beginning of a phrase. The three easternmost Jewish languages express new alarming move off [Theta] to one. The results of these changes can be seen regarding term ‘house’ and this looks in almost any languages once the be:[Theta good]a good (Tkhuma), biya (Jilu), https://datingranking.net/de/elite-dating-de/ beta (Hertevin), bela (Halabja), and besa (Sanandaj Christian).